Natural Regeneration :
- Naturally regenerated by seeds under favorable conditions.
Artificial Regeneration :
- Propagated by Direct sowing of seeds.
Seed Treatment :
- Cold water treatment for 24 hours .
Plantation technique :
"One year old seedlings are prefered for planting. One to two year old transplants can be planted out sucessfully The seedlings are generally planted in pits having the size of 30x30x30 cm. The most common spacing adopted for plantation is 3m x 3m. On road sides, deeper pits of the size of 45 x 45 x 45 cm are preferred. "
Care & Disease Control :
Pest and disease :
1. When trees are planted too deep in the soil they may die of crown rot (Phytophthora spp.) Seedlings may be subject to powdery mildew, caused by Podosphaera leucotricha and by root rots.
2.Experienced growers usually spray antibiotic fireblight materials (Streptomycin, Terramycin, or copper) during the bloom period.
3. Antibiotic sprays for fireblight should be made at time of bloom and continued in April and May and after harvest.
4. Frequent removal of diseased (blighted) limbs as soon as symptoms appear to control fireblight is necessary most years
For proper growth and survival it is necessary to give one or two waterings after planting. This is specifically required in arid regions. Irrigation after planting is not a prerequisite in areas having sufficient soil moisture and precipitation. Higher survival rate and better rate of growth is reported when soil and water conservation measures are also adopted.
25 year and in Minimum exploitable girth is 2.1 m which is wored under Coppice system.
Major uses :
- The bark is antiseptic and febrifuge .
- The juice of the plant is applied externally to kill worms in sores An infusion of the roots is used in the treatment of diarrhoea and dysentery
Other uses :
The bark contains 7 - 9% tannin .