Agathi, Sesban

Sesbania grandiflora



General Information :

  • Agathi is a short-lived, fast growing loosely-branching tree with open crown.
  • Bark light brown in color.
  • Leave dark green in color turn yellow before shedding.
  • Flowers are pinkish white in color.
  • Fruit is a long pot with 10-15 pale color seeds.

Distribution :

  • It is native to Malaysia and naturalized to all parts of India.

Habitat : Tropical and deciduous forest

Soil : Grows in wide varieties of soil.

Soil pH : 6.5 and 7.5

Altitude :Up to 800 m (MSL)

Rainfall :Up to 1000 mm

Temperature : 40 - 47.5 deg C

Terrain : It prefers flat and hot terrain

Tree Characteristics :
  • Light demanding, drought resistant and a frost resistant species.
  • It coppices well.

Habit : Deciduous Tree

Planting Guidelines

Natural Regeneration :

  • It is propagated by seed.

Artificial Regeneration :

  • Propagated by direct sowing and nursery raised seedlings.

Seed collection and Storage :

  • Seeds are collected during April to May.
  • It is well dried in sun before storage.
  • Seed rate 15000-16000/Kg.
  • It is viable for one year under ordinary storage condition.
  • Germination capacity is 80 -  90 %

Seed Treatment :

  • No Pre-sowing treatment is required.

Nursery Technique :

  • The seed is directly sown in the polybags in April - May
  • Polythene bag with filled with sandy loam soil and FYM
  • Germination takes place within 3-5 days.
  • Watering should be on alternate day after germination.
  • Seedlings grow very rapidly and fit for planting out in three month.

Plantation technique :

Nursery Raised Seedlings:  

  • Three month old nursery raised seedlings are selected for planting in pit size of 30 m3.
  • Optimum Spacing adopted is 1.2 m x 1.2 m
  • The seedlings should be planted out during the onset monsoon in well drained pits or contour trenches.    
  Direst Sowing:   
  • The species is best raised by direct sowing in lines 30 cm wide and 1.8 cm apart.
  • Seeds may be sown in the patches at an espacement of 1.8 x 1.8 x 1.8 m with about 3 seeds in each patch.
  • Sowing done after the onset of monsoon.

Care & Disease Control :

  • Regular weeding and soil working is essential.

Irrigation :

  • Tolerates waterlogging.

Recommended Harvest :

  • First harvest after 8 months and subsequent harvest at an interval of 60 -80 days.

Yield :

  • Forage production 4 to 9 kg / tree/year.

Agro Forestory :

  • Suitable for intercropping with agricultural crops and black pepper.

Major uses :

  • It is valued for food, fodder, green manure and pulp.
  • It is used for reforesting eroded and grassy wastelands.
  • Leaves and pods are valued fro highly palatable fodder.
  • It is used for making good semi-chemical process pulp which can be blended with long fiber pulp to make cheaper paper.
  • The trees is grown for ornamental

Other uses :

Bark exudate and seed endosperm gums are produced. The clear bark gum is used in adhesives as a substitute for gum arabic.The bark yields tannins.The white wood is soft and rather light. The density of the wood increases with age. however, the timber from 5 to 8 year-old trees can be used in house construction or as craft wood.

Market details :

  • Approximately Rs.2300 – Rs.2600/ton of fuel wood.