Natural Regeneration :
- Naturally regenerates by root suckers.
Artificial Regeneration :
- Propagation by Layers is used as planting material.
Seed collection and Storage :
- Seed storage behaviour is orthodox; seeds at 6% mc survive 24 hours in liquid nitrogen; no loss in viability following 66 %.
- months hermetic storage at -20 deg. C with 5.5% mc.
Seed Treatment :
- Seed capsules are clipped from trees when the capsules begin to split.
- The capsules are sun dried until they split and then shelled by hand.
- The seed is further dried and then stored in sealed containers in a refrigerator, because viability is lost quickly at ambient air temperatures
Nursery Technique :
- Air layering is also known as ‘goottee’ which is mainly practiced during rainy season (June to September)
- Survival capacity of layers 80-85%.
- For air layering 1 year old branches of 1 to 1.5 m length are selected.
- A ring of bark of 2.5 to 3.0 cm long is removed from 45 cm away from the tip.
- The rooting hormone IBA (root promoting plant growth hormone) @ 4000-5000 ppm is applied at the upper cut end of girdled area.
- The girdled area is covered with moist sphagnum moss and wrapped with polythene tape.
- Rooting starts within 3-5 weeks.
- After 6 to 8 weeks when sufficient roots are visible through the transparent tape, the layer is removed from the branch by means of cutting the stem below the girdled area in stages
- The polythene film is removed from the finally severed rooted stem and potted and kept in the shade until new leaves appear.
- When the new flushes are produced, the plants can be transplanted in the field.
Plantation technique :
- The planting is distributed from June - December.
- A spacing 5 - 6m in either way is generally followed.
- Plant the layers with the ball of earth in the center of pit of 45 cm x 45 cm x 45 cm size filled with FYM 10 Kg neem cake 1 Kg and top soil.
Care & Disease Control :
All heavy pruning should be done during the dormant/winter season, but some light pruning to open up the plants and remove suckers can be done in the summer, usually in August.
For proper growth and survival it is necessary to give one or two waterings after planting. This is specifically required in arid regions. Irrigation after planting is not a prerequisite in areas having sufficient soil moisture and precipitation. Higher survival rate and better rate of growth is reported when soil and water conservation measures are also adopted
Recommended Harvest :
- Layers come to bearing in 2 - 3 years.
- The first crop can be harvested during February – July and the second one during September – January.
- The crop yields about 25 t/ha.
Agro Forestory :
- Performed very well when intercropped with fodder crops such as maize, sorghum and cowpeas.
Major uses :
- Irrigate copiously immediately after planting, again on third day and afterwards once in 10 days or as and when necessary.
- Pruning is to be done during September-October and February – March to encourage more laterals.
Market details :
- Approximately Rs. 50000 – Rs.60000 /ton
Carbon stock :