Arabian coffee,Coffee tree

Coffea arabica



General Information :

  • It is a medium sized wild plant growing 12 ft tall.
  • Leaves opposite, glossy green in color.
  • Flowers are white in color.
  • Seeds are contained in a drupe.

Distribution :

  • Native to Ethiopia, Introduced in India and widely cultivated

Habitat : Humid Tropics

Soil : Soil should be deep, friable, open textured rich in plant nutrients with plenty of humus and of slightly acidic nature

Altitude :1300-3000 m(MSL)

Rainfall :1500-2000 mm

Temperature : 15-25° C

Terrain : Hilly

Tree Characteristics :
  • Light demander

Habit : Evergreen tree

Planting Guidelines

Natural Regeneration :

  • Propagated by seeds.

Artificial Regeneration :

  • Propagated by Nursery raised seedlings.

Seed collection and Storage :

  • Ripe berries are harvested from specially identified plants for use as seed bearers.
  • Berries are depulped and seeds are separated.
  • The seed is then graded to remove all cut, triangular and elephant beans.

Seed Treatment :

  • Seed are treated with Azospirillum and Phosphobacterium
  • The seeds are treated with Agrosan or any Organomercurial compound to prevent fungal infection.

Nursery Technique :

  • Seeds are sown in December – January
  • Then they are covered with a thin layer of fine soil and a layer of paddy straw.
  • Water the beds daily and protect from direct sunlight
  • Seeds germinate in about 45 days after which they are transplanted to a poly bags

Plantation technique :

Preparation of field

  • Selective felling may be done while retaining a number of desirable shade trees.
  • Terracing should be done in deep slopy areas.
  • After the summer showers, pits of 45 cm3 are dug at 1.25 - 2.5 m apart.
  • The pits are left open for weathering and then filled and heaped for planting.
  • At the time of filling, apply 500 g of rock phosphate per pit along with top soil.
  • Planting is done along the contour in slopy areas.
Spacing :
  • 1.5 to 2.0 m either way.
Planting shade trees:
  • Dadap is commonly used as a lower canopy shade.
  • Two metre long stakes are planted for every two plants of coffee.
  • Silver Oak and Dadaps are planted during onset of monsoon.
  • Regulate shade by cutting criss-cross branches during monsoon season.
  • Silver oak trees are planted for permanent shade.

Care & Disease Control :

  • Weeding and mulching should be done as and when necessary.
  • Digging is done to a depth of 30 cm towards the end of monsoon (October - November). 
  • The weeds and vegetative debris are completely turned under and buried in the soil while the stumps are removed.
  • This is known as the cover digging.
  • In slopy areas dig trenches on the contour 45 cm wide and 30 cm deep of any convenient length. 
  • Prune water shoots and disease affected shoots.

Recommended Harvest :

  • Harvest starts during November and harvesting extends up to February. 
Fly picking:
  • Small scale picking of ripe berries during October to February
Main picking:
  • Well formed and ripened berries are harvested during December. Bulks of the yields are obtained from this picking.
  • Picking of all the berries left irrespective of ripening.

Yield :

  • Approximately 900 to 1400 kg of coffee beans/ha.

Major uses :

  • Coffee is widely used as a flavoring, as in ice cream, pastries, candies, and liqueurs.
  • Wood is hard, dense, durable, takes a good polish, and is suitable for tables, chairs, and turnery.