Ficus benghalensis



General Information :

  • Banyan tree is an evergreen or deciduous tree, irregularly-shaped, with wide-spreading branches and without aerial roots from the branches
  • Bark is grey with brownish specks, smooth, exfoliating in irregular rounded flakes.
  • Leaves alternate, spirally arranged and dark green leaves.

Distribution :

  • Native to Indonesia ,widely spread throughout India  

Habitat : It is found scattered in forests, where it propagates as an epiphyte on other trees especially widely found in uplands and plane area.

Soil : Deep, alluvial sandy loam with good drainage

Soil pH : 5.5-6.5

Altitude :Up to 1520 m (MSL)

Rainfall :500-5000 mm

Temperature : 16-35ºC

Terrain : Plain

Tree Characteristics :
  • Drought resistant and light demander.

Habit : Deciduous tree

Planting Guidelines

Natural Regeneration :


  • Naturally regenerates by seeds and root suckers.

Artificial Regeneration :

  •    Propagated by seeds and vegetative cuttings.

Seed collection and Storage :

  • Fruits are collected and depulped and squeezed in water.
  • The floating seeds are collected and dried on blotting paper in shade.
  • The dried seeds are stored in a clean polybag.

Seed Treatment :

  • Cold water treatment for 24 hours.

Nursery Technique :

  • Seeds are broad casted in the mother bed mixed with sand and red earth.
  • watering is done as on when  required
  • germination starts in about 2 weeks.
  • Tow leaf stage individual seedlings could be pricked out into a polybag Shade was provided for at least 1 weak after each transplanting. Seedlings were susceptible to over-watering until the final transplant.

Plantation technique :

  • Planting out is carried out during July in 30 cm3 pits,
  • Under dry conditions, pit size of 60 cm3 with an interval 5 to 10 m Planting should be carried out after the commencement of monsoon.

Care & Disease Control :


  • Regular weeding and soil working should be taken care.

Irrigation :

For proper growth and survival it is necessary to give one or two waterings after planting. This is specifically required in arid regions. Irrigation after planting is not a prerequisite in areas having sufficient soil moisture and precipitation. Higher survival rate and better rate of growth is reported when soil and water conservation measures are also adopted.

Recommended Harvest :

Rotation:15 years

Yield :

Rotation:15 years

Major uses :


  • Its leaves are lopped as fodder for elephants, camels, goats and cattle; having about 10-14% crude protein.
  • Silage prepared from the tree is palatable and digestible.
  • It is moderately durable under cover and quite durable under water.
  • It is little used but is occasionally converted into packing cases, cheap boarding, yokes, spoons and bowls.

Other uses :

Tannin or dyestuff: Its bark is used in tanning.

Carbon stock :

0.799 tC/tree