White Teak /Kumil

Gmelina arborea



General Information :

  • A close relative of teak and deciduous tree.
  • The bark is grey-green in color.
  • Leaves light green in color
  • Flowers are reddish brown with yellow drupe fruit.
  • Each fruit contains 2-3 seeds.

Distribution :

  • It occurs is many parts of India.

Habitat : Deciduous Forests.

Soil : It grows up very well in red sandy loam soil.

Altitude :Up to 1200m (MSL)

Rainfall :750mm –2500mm

Temperature : 30ËšC to 47ËšC

Terrain : Plain / gentle slope

Tree Characteristics :
  • A light demander, frost and drought hardy.
  • It coppices very well 

Habit : A moderate-sized deciduous tree.

Planting Guidelines

Natural Regeneration :

  • Naturally regenerates itself from coppice or self sown seeds in rain.

Artificial Regeneration :

  • Raised artificially by Nursery raised seedlings. 

Seed collection and Storage :

  • Mature fruits should be collected frequently, e.g. twice every week
  • In order to avoid fermentation, fruits should be brought to the cleaning area within 24 hours.
  • Depulping of small quantities of fruits can be done manually by mashing the fruits until the pulp is loose from the seeds, and rinsing with water.
  • For larger quantities of fruits depulping is normally done in a coffee-depulper.
  • Soaking the fruits in water for 24 hours before depulping will facilitate the process.
  • After depulping, the fruits are spread out on a wire-mesh tray and rinsed with water to remove juice and pulp.
  • Finally the seeds are washed and dried well in the sun. 

Seed Treatment :

  • Soak seeds in cold water for 24hrs.

Nursery Technique :

  • Propagated by both seeds and vegetative methods.
  • Seeds are sown directly in the root trainer or raised beds
  • The bed should be filled with sand up to height of 0.5 m.
  • The seeds broadcast over the bed. 
  • The beds are to be watered twice a day with the help of rose cane.
  • One kg of seeds contain about 1500-2000 seeds.
  • The size of the seeds varies between the trees.
  • Seeds normally germinate quickly and at high levels.
  • Often the germination will be above 100% as more than one seed will germinate from each stone.
  • The seedbed should be exposed to full sunlight as partly or full shade will reduce germination.
  • After germination, the seedlings can be transplanted to poly bags

Plantation technique :

  • The seedlings were planted in a pit of 45 cm3
  • About 120 days old seedlings are used for planting.
  • The seedlings are planted with the spacing of 3 x 3 m to 5 x 5 m.
  • Establishing pulp wood and bio energy plantations 2 x 2 m spacing is also adopted.

Care & Disease Control :


  • Pruning is an important practice in the cultivation of tree
  • Pruning decides the growth, clear bole and intercropping ability.
  • Pruning of side branches is usually carried out in every six months.
  • The pruned branches can be used as fire wood.
  • Thinning is another important practice to enhance the production of saw log.
  • The thinning begins at 4-5 years of age for the woods that are used for pulp productions.
  • The alternative trees in the row are to be thinned, to avoid competition between the trees and maximize the growth.

Irrigation :

  • Daily drip irrigation for the initial 2 years.
  • No Tolerance to water logging.

Recommended Harvest :

  • The trees are harvested 4 – 5 years after planting for pulpwood.
  • The trees harvested at 10 – 12 years after planting for log productions

Yield :

  • Under good management regime each trees yield about 1.5 to 2 tons.
  • The total yield per hector is around 250 – 300 tons / ha.*
 *Subject to varry according to site factors.

Agro Forestory :

  • Growing of Gmelina arborea in agroforestry model is a commercial practice in TamilNadu.
  • Some of the agroforestry models are Gmelina + Ground nut,  Gmelina +Water melon, Gmelina +Pulses, Gmelina +Maize, Gmelina +Banana.
  • Multi - tier cropping system also has been followed in Pudukkottai district of Tamil Nadu.
  • Coconut + Gmelina + Banana + Pepper (pepper trained on the Gmelina trees).

Major uses :

  • The tree has immense potential for its timber and medicinal value.
  • It is a preferred species by farmers, forest departments and ayurvedic industries due to the multipurpose utility, rapid growth, and maximum economic returns.
  • The wood is used for pulp, particle board, plywood, matches, carpentry and packing. It is also used for construction at boards, carwing and musical instruments.
  • The leaves and fruits are used as a fodder, and also used for rearing silkworms.
  • The species also planted in Taungia system with short rotation crops, and also as a shade tree for coffee and cocco.

Market details :

  • Aproximately Rs.7000 to 8000/ton*
*Subject to change according to market demands