Bitter Albizia, Unjal maram

Albizia amara



General Information :

  • It is a small to moderate sized deciduous tree
  • Bark is thin, smooth, darkish green.
  • Flowers yellow or pinkish in color
  • Fruits greyish brown in color containing 6-8 seeds in each pod.

Distribution :

  • Indigenous to Western Ghats with a high rainfall. 

Habitat : It common in the dry deciduous and thorn forests of South India.

Soil : Occurs in red lateritic soils and dry sandy soils.

Altitude :Up to 900 m (MSL)

Rainfall :600-1000 mm

Temperature : 30°C to 42.5°C

Terrain : Flat

Tree Characteristics :
  • Strong light demander, drought resistant and intolerant of suppression. 

Habit : Deciduous Tree

Planting Guidelines

Natural Regeneration :

Natural Regeneration:

  • Regeneration from seed is generally good. It reproduces freely from coppice. 
Artificial Regeneration:
  • Propagated by direct sowing and vegetative cuttings.
Seed Collection and Storage:
  • The tree produces abundant seed annually.
  • Pods are collected from the tree in months of January - February.
  • Seeds are extracted after beating the pods and removing the husk.
  • weighs 14000 seeds/kg
  • Seeds can be stored for 2 years under ordinary conditions.
Seed Treatment:
  • No pre- treatment is desirable, as the untreated seeds give best results.
  • Germination capacity 75 - 80 %
  • The germinative capacity of seed from young coppice growth is lower than that from old trees.
Nursery Technique:
  • The seeds are sown in mother bed and two leaf stage seedlings are transferred to polybags.
  • Germination percentage is 50-75 %.

Plantation technique :

  • Planting out is carried out during July in 30 cm3 pits
  • Under dry conditions, pit size of 60 cm3 with a spacing of 3x3 m
  • Planting should be carried out after the commencement of monsoon

Care & Disease Control :

  • Cattle proof fence is necessary for young seedlings that are browsed and damaged by cattle.
  • Weeding and soil working should be done in first two years.

Irrigation :

  • For proper growth and survival, it is necessary to give one or two waterings after planting.
  • This is specifically required in arid regions. Irrigation after planting is not a prerequisite in areas having sufficient soil moisture and precipitation.
  • Higher survival rate and better rate of growth is reported when soil and water conservation measures are also adopted.

Recommended Harvest :

  • 25-30 years.  

Yield :

  • Approximately 150-200 tons/ha*
        *Subject to varry according to site factors.

Major uses :


  • Timber is locally used for house-building , post, beams, rafters, ploughs, agricultural implements, constructional work and carving
  • It is also suitable for tool handles and mallet heads         
  • Leaves are good fodder for cattle.
  • Leaves also used green manure of paddy crops. 

Market details :

Approximately Rs.3200 to Rs.3500/ton* *Subject to change according to market demands