Growth : Moderate
Height : 25m
Natural Regeneration :
It is propagated by seed.
Propagted by cutting. Mostly vegetative method is not prefered.
Seed collection Storage
- Seeds are collected in the month of April-June by shaking the branches.
- The seeds are collected after removal of the pulp and then dried and stored. Viability is retained upto on year.
- No. of seeds/kg is 1150.
- The germiantion and plant percentage is 85-90 and 60% respectively.
- 24 hours cold water soaking before sowing.
- The pretrated seeds are either put in primary beds and then pricked out to the polybags or pregerminate seeds are sown in polythene bags.
- These are covered with the layer of hay and watered regularly.
- Because of very rapid develoopment of the root, bigger sixe polythene bags are prefered.
Plantation technique :
- The best season of planting is June to August.
- Pits of the size of 60 cm x 60 cm x 60 cm may be dug for planting seedlings.
- 10 kg of FYM and 500 g of superphosphate may be applied per pit while planting.
- With good irrigation system, planting may be done in other months also.
- Normal spacing is 4.5 m x 4.5 m ;Plant population – 494 / ha.
- In fertile soils and in high rainfall areas spacing may be 5 m x 5m.
For proper growth and survival it is necessary to give one or two waterings after planting. This is specifically required in arid regions. Irrigation after planting is not a prerequisite in areas having sufficient soil moisture and precipitation. Higher survival rate and better rate of growth is reported when soil and water conservation measures are also adopted
Recommended Harvest :
coppice rotation of about 30 years to give usable products
Agro Forestory :
Plants can be grown as a hedge
Major uses :
- The leaves are used as the wrapping around tobacco to make bidi cigarettes in India.
- The leaves possess unrivalled qualities of flavour, colour, flexible and leathery texture, decay resistance and easy workability, which make them admirably suitable for wrapping bidis.
- The seeds can be intoxicating, they have been prescribed in India as a cure for mental disorders, nervous breakdowns and palpitations of the heart.
- The bark is astringent. A decoction is used in the treatment of diarrhoea.
Other uses :
- The fruits are edible.
- The yellow pulp is soft and sweet.