Australian wattle

Acacia auriculiformis



General Information :

  • A moderate sized evergreen tree, attaining a height of 10 m to 15 m and 60 cm diameter in its normal length of life.
  • Leaf stalks are modified into flattened blade called phyllode.
  • Flowers 4mm long, tiny and rich yellow in colour.
  • Pods are 1.2 cm wide, flate woody and much twisted coils.

Distribution :

  • It is an exotic species and successfully introduced in all parts of Tamil Nadu.

Habitat : A riparian species of Dry Savannahs, woodlands, swamp edges, coastal savannas, grasslands, monsoon forests.

Soil : Tree grows on a wide variety of deep or shallow , acidic or alkaline soils including Red, Lateritic, Clay, Red gravelly and Sandy soils

Soil pH : 6 and 7

Altitude :Up to 600 m (MSL)

Rainfall :600-1000mm

Temperature : 20°C to 30°C

Terrain : Plains / Hills

Tree Characteristics :
  • Strong Light demander and intolerant to competition,Excellent Seed producer and can regenerate under its own shade, moderately drought resistant and fire tender.

Habit : Evergreen Tree

Planting Guidelines

Natural Regeneration :

  • It has high capacity to regenerate under its own shade.
  • Natural regeneration comes up well if the plantation of 16 years old or more is given light burning after seed fall.
  • Thinning out or clear felling tends the seedlings to grow rapidly.

Artificial Regeneration :

  • The trees can be propagated by nursery raised entire plant, poly plants and Direct sowing.

Seed collection and Storage :

  • Tree starts fruiting are early stage till 40 years.
  • Seed ripens in January to March and best time for collection is February to March.
  • The pods are lopped and spread in sun for 5-10 days and separated by hands.
  • Stored in air-tight tins in a cool dry place.
  • Seeds are viable for 2 years.
  • 43 seeds weigh one gram.
  • Germination capacity High and germination percentage is 50 % and
  • Plant percent is 65 %.
  • No.of Plants/kg of seed is 27300.

Seed Treatment :

  • Seeds are soaked in water for 24 - 36 hours before sowing or immersed in boiling water and allowing it to cool and soak for 24 hrs.

Nursery Technique :

Nursery Beds:

  • Seeds are sown at 5cm x 5cm during February - March or December - January.
  • Germination beds are prepared by mixing well decomposed manure, Red earth and burnt ash.
  • The beds are provided with lateral shade to protect against direct hot winds and removed after completion of germination.          
  • Seedlings attain height of 1 m to 1.5 m during July is suitable for planting.
Poly bag Seedlings:
  • Plants are raised in the polybags of 23 cm x 15 cm size.
  • Bags filled with pulverized soil and cow dung in the ratio of 3 : 1.
  • Seeds are sown in each bag in March and depth of sowing should be 1 cm.
  • Overhead shade is provided during germination period.
  • Germination starts in 15-21 days and completes within 30-35 days.
  • Bags are planted out in the field in June-July.

Plantation technique :

  • Nursery raised Seedling are planted during monsoon season.
  • 3-4 month old polythene bag plants are planted in pit size of 30cm x 30cm x 30cm.
Border Planting :
  • 1.5 m
Bulk Planting:
  • Initial 1.83 m x 1.83 m (Remove 50 % after 4th year to obtain vertical growth).
Fire and Pulpwood Plantation:
  • 2m - 4m x 2m - 4m

Care & Disease Control :


  • Weeding are necessary during initial years and fertilization promotes growth.

Recommended Harvest :

  • 4-5 years for Fuel Wood
  • 8-10 years for Pulp Wood and
  • 12 - 15 Years for Timber

Yield :

  • 17 - 20 m3/ha/year at rotation of 10-12 years.
  • Yield of Shallow soils were only 5 m3/ha/year at rotation of 15 year. 

Agro Forestory :

  • Very use full tree for reclaiming wasteland areas and conserving soil and water.

Major uses :

Fulewood :

  • Good quality fulewood of calorific value being 4800-4900 Kcal per kg.
  • It gives excellent charcoal which burns without smoke or spark.
  • Among many fuel wood it was found to be most efficient for domestic consumption.
Pulpwood :
  • Pulp has high strength properties used for manufacture of wide range of paper and paper-board products.
Wood :
  • Timber used for local furniture on moderate scale.
  • The bark contains about 15% water soluble tannin which produces good quality of leather.