Large-leaved Mahogany

Swietenia macrophylla



General Information :

  • A large deciduous tree, growing up to 45-60 m tall
  • The trunk is straight and cylindrical with dense foliage.
  • The leaves are usually
  • The leaflets are asymmetric, with pointed or long pointed tip.
  • Flowers  are fragrant greenish yellow in color
  • Fruits are woody capsules which contains winged seeds.

Distribution :

  • Exotic species.
  • In India is cultivated successfully in areas receiving up to 8000 mm of rainfall.

Habitat : Evergreen and Deciduous forest.

Soil : Occurs in red lateritic soils and dry sandy soils.

Altitude :Up to 450 m (MSL)

Rainfall :1500-5000 mm

Temperature : 20°C -30°C

Terrain : Plains/hilly

Tree Characteristics :
  • Evergreen and Deciduous forest

Habit : Evergreen Tree

Planting Guidelines

Natural Regeneration :

  • Regeneration is obtained in abundance under the mature mother tree.

Seed collection and Storage :

  • Mature fruits are collected from the trees when they are about to dehisce and dried in the sun to free the seeds.
  • Seeds cannot be stored under ordinary condition for more than 3-4 months.
  • Germinative capacity is  60 - 90%. 

Seed Treatment :

  • No Seed Treatment is required

Nursery Technique :

  • Seeds sown in drills 2-4 cm deep at a spacing of 5 x 7.5 or 10 x10 cm in shaded nursery beds.
  • About 140 gms of will be required
  • Germination begins after 14-28 days.
  • Seedlings attain the height of 60-75 cm in 6 months.                          

Plantation technique :

  • Prior to planting Mahogany must be ensured that the selected site is well thoroughly cleared of weeds.
  • Dig pit of size 45 cm3.
  • A pit mixture of 200gms of decomposed organic manure (FYM or compost), de oiled Neem cake and Top soil (kept aside during digging of the pit.) at the ratio of 2:1:1can be applied to each pit.
  • The pits must be filled at least 2weeks before planting, to allow for the pit-mixture to settle.
  • The recommended spacing for the plant is a square or triangular grid type with dimension of 6.0 X 6.5 ft.
  • Watering has to be done immediately after planting.
  • During the first two week watering should be done alternate day. Subsequently, irrigation can be done once in 3 to 4 days depending upon the soil and weather conditions.
  •  In non-irrigated lands micro-irrigation systems are recommended.

Care & Disease Control :

  • Fertilizer should be applied in 8 split doses.
  • First year N: P: K (17:17:17) & Micro Nutrients 200gms. / Plant / month, except dormancy (Dec - Jan) period.
  • Every month this has to be split and applied through pocket manuring by making 1 ft hole near the plant .
  • Apply the fertilizer in the hole and fill it with soil.

Irrigation :

  • For proper growth and survival it is necessary to give one or two watering after planting.
  • This is specifically required in arid regions.
  • Irrigation after planting is not a prerequisite in areas having sufficient soil moisture and precipitation.
  • Higher survival rate and better rate of growth is reported when soil and water conservation measures are also adopted.

Recommended Harvest :

  • 8 - 10 years
  • The number of trees per acre is 1200-1500. 

Yield :

  • For 1500 trees per acre timber yield will be 36000 Ctft under intensive management.*
*Subject to varry according to site factors

Major uses :

  • Mahogany is a kind of wood — the straight - grained, reddish - brown
  • Mahogany is a commercially important lumber prized for its beauty, durability, and color,
  • It is used for paneling and to make furniture, boats, musical instruments and other items.

Market details :

  • Approximately Rs.3100 to Rs.3500/ ton and Rs.500 to Rs. 600/Sft
  *Subject to change according to market demands