Tectona grandis



General Information :

  • Teak is a large, deciduous tree.
  • Leaves large dark green in color.
  • Flowers are white and
  • Spherical shaped brownish Fruit which contains 1-3 seeds each.
  • Large amount of seed sets every year

Distribution :

  • Teak is Indigenous to India.

Habitat : Tropical moist and Dry deciduous forest

Soil : Teak grows best on deep, well-drained alluvial soils

Altitude :Up to 1200 m (MSL)

Rainfall :800-2500 mm

Temperature : 13°C - 48°C

Terrain : Plain/hilly

Tree Characteristics :
  • It is a strong light demander, intolerant of suppression of weeds and fire resistant.
  • It coppice vigorously with multiple shoots.
  • Singling with healthy shoots.

Habit : Deciduous Tree

Planting Guidelines

Natural Regeneration :

  • It is propagated by seed.
  • Light, seed, frost, soil, and fire are the influencing factors of natural regeneration.

Artificial Regeneration :

  • Propagated by seeds and vegetative cuttings (Stump)
  • Stump is preferable for commercial cultivation

Seed collection and Storage :

  • Generally teak starts flowering 6 years after planting, but profuse flowering occurs after 15 years.
  • Flowering occurs from June to September and fruits can be collected from November to January.
  • The fruits are yellowish and brownish in color and the number of fruits varies from 1150 to 2800 per kg.
  • A 40 year old tree produces an average of about 3 kg fruits.
  • Teak fruit contains 4 seeds, but mostly filled with 1 or 2 seeds only.
  • After collection, the fruits are cleaned and then sun dried for 2-3 days and stored in gunny bags.
  • Teak seeds can be stored for up to two years around 12% moisture content in airtight containers.
  • Seed Rate is 1500-2000 seeds/ kg. 

Seed Treatment :

Seed Treatment

  • Germination of teak is often poor due to dormancy.
  • Immersion in cold water for 10 days with change of water.
  • Alternate soaking and shade drying in cow dung solution for 10 days.
  • The germination percentage varies from 30 to 50 % in moist teak and 5 to 10 % in dry teak.  

Nursery Technique :

  • The seeds were sown in the raised nursery beds (10 x 1 x 0.3 m) prepared with soil and sand mixture.
  • The nursery beds have to be watered regularly and covered with coconut leaf or paddy straw.
  • Germination starts 10 to 15 days after sowing and continues up to 35 to 45 days.
  • The paddy straw may be removed once the seed started germination.
  • The seedlings can be transplanted to polythene bags or it can be maintained in the nursery beds for 6 months for preparation of stumps.

Plantation technique :

  • The land should be ploughed thoroughly and prepare pits ( 45 cm3) in 2 x 2 m or 3 x 3 m or 3 x 4 m spacing before rainy season.
  •  Farm yard manure with soil mixture has to be prepared and filled in the pits.
  • Seedlings are planted in the pits during rainy season.
  • For stump planting crowbar can be used.
  • Teak can also be planted in bunds in south and north direction in such way the agricultural crops get sufficient light. 

Care & Disease Control :

  • In the initial stage the plants have to be watered weekly and regular weeding and pruning have to be done.
  • Drip irrigation is beneficial in farm lands.
  • Irrigation reduces the rotation period and also enhances the productivity.
  • Application fertilizers based on the growth status
  • Teak defoliator, Hyblaea puera and leaf skeletonizer, Eutectona machaeralis are considered as major pests in teak.
  • These insects are known to occur on seedlings and also in grown up plantations.
  • If the pest attack is severe it can be controlled by spraying of the foliage with the chemicals Neem based formulations (Neem azal 1%) at 10-12 days intervals can give good control.
  •  A virus (NPV) based formulation (biocide) is also available for management of the defoliator H. puera.

Irrigation :

  • Watered weekly.
  • Drip irrigation.

Recommended Harvest :

  • 20-25 years

Yield :

  • Approximately 10 to 15 Cft /tree*
*Subject to varry according to site factors.

Agro Forestory :

  • The common intercrops are paddy, chillies, maize, wheat, sesame and various vegetables.
  • Crops such as sugarcane, wet rice, plantain, jute, cotton, or creeping vegetables such as pumpkin and cucumber are not allowed.

Major uses :

  • Teak is known for color, texture and grains preferred for high class furniture and aesthetic needs.
  • It is also used for structural needs like ship and boat building and construction.
  • Teak wood markets and depots are available in all teak growing states in India.

Market details :

  • Approximately Rs. 2000 - 2500/sft *
*Subject to change according to market demands