Axle wood / Vekaynage

Anogeissus latifolia



General Information :

  • It is a medium to large sized deciduous tree.
  • Bark is thin smooth, greenish or pale yellow in color.
  • Leaves alternate long dark green in color.
  • Fruit small drupe yellowish brown in color with wedge shaped seed.

Distribution :

  • It is native to India and abundant in south eastern part of Tamil Nadu.

Habitat : Deciduous Forest

Soil : It is found on a variety of soil types but prefers deep alluvial soils.

Soil pH : 4.3-8.0

Altitude :Up to 1200 m

Rainfall :625-2250 mm

Temperature : 38-45°C

Terrain : Plains, gentle slopes and rocky terrain

Tree Characteristics :
  • Light demander, drought resistant and Coppice well.

Habit : Deciduous Tree

Planting Guidelines

Natural Regeneration :

  • Natural regeneration of occurs through seed and coppice.

Artificial Regeneration :

  • Propagated by Nursery raised seedlings

Seed collection and Storage :

  • Ripe fruit are collected from December and dried in sun
  • Seeds are released on drying from the pods and stored
  • Seed rate 1 lakh /Kg.
  • Seeds are viable for 8 months.
  • Germination capacity is 0.5 to 5%

Seed Treatment :

  • Cold water treatment for 48 hours.

Nursery Technique :

  • The seeds are broadcasted on the raise mother bed in May-June.
  • Beds are covered with thin layer of paddy straw and watered regularly.
  • Germination starts within seven days.
  • As the seedlings are sensitive to drought regular watering is essential
  • Two leaf stage seedlings are pricked out in poly bag.

Plantation technique :

Nursery Raised seedlings:

  • Pitting size 30 cm3 or 45 cm3
  • Spacing adopted : 3 m x 3 m and 5 m x 5 m

Care & Disease Control :

  • Regular weeding and soil working are essential in young plantation.

Irrigation :

For proper growth and survival it is necessary to give one or two waterings after planting. This is specifically required in arid regions. Irrigation after planting is not a prerequisite in areas having sufficient soil moisture and precipitation. Higher survival rate and better rate of growth is reported when soil and water conservation measures are also adopted.

Recommended Harvest :

  • 10-25 years

Yield :

  • 1.5m3/ha/year

Agro Forestory :

The tree is a good survivor on eroded land. It is used in river bank stabilization. The tree contributes to soil nutrient cycling, exhibiting high leaf-litter decomposition rates.

Major uses :

  • Timber is used   for making furniture.
  • Agricultural implements and house constructions.
  • Leaves are used for rearing taser silk worm.

Other uses :

Fodder:  Tussar silkworms are fed on its foliage which is also used as fodder for cattle and buffaloes. A. latifolia leaves contain up to 45% digestible nutrient. Fuel:  A. latifolia yields good charcoal and firewood with an energy value of 17 600-20 500 kJ/kg.

Market details :

  • Approximately Rs.3700 to Rs.4000/ton.