Wild Jujube/Jhahr beri

Ziziphus nummularia



General Information :

  • A small to moderate sized deciduous Evergreen tree.
  • Leaves tiny, ovate dark green in color.
  • Flowers are very tiny cremish in color.
  • Fruits reddish brown in color.

Distribution :

  • It is found throughout the hotter and drier parts of India.

Habitat : Dry Deciduous forest.

Soil : Wide variety of soil except clay soil

Soil pH : 5.5- 7

Altitude :Up to 1700 m

Rainfall :100-1000 mm

Temperature : 15-35 deg C

Terrain : Plain /hilly

Tree Characteristics :
  • Strong Light demander, frost and drought hardy

Habit : Dry deciduous forests and scrub jungles

Planting Guidelines

Natural Regeneration :

  • Propagated by seed.

Artificial Regeneration :

  • Propagated by Nursery raised Seedlings.

Seed collection and Storage :

  • Seeds are collected from June to August.
  • Fresh Fruits on collection should be depulped and shade dried.
  • Seed weight is 3300-500/kg.
  • Seed has less viability.

Seed Treatment :

  • Cold water treatment for 24 hours.

Nursery Technique :

  • Seeds are directly dibbled into polybags with soil, sand and FYM in the ratio of 1:1:1 or 2:1:1.
  •  Soil with high clay content should be avoided.
  • Fresh seeds should be graded and large size seeds are sown in polybags at the rate of two seeds per bag.
  • Two leaf stage seedlings are transplanted into polybags.

Plantation technique :

  • Polybags planting: In dry localities pits of 45 cm3 and in moist locality pits of 30 cm3 are dug for planting.
  • Seedling of 6 -12 month old are out planted into the above pits during the rainy season;
  • The spacing normally applied is 3x 3 m or 5 x 5 m for fodder production and 10 m x 10 m to 12 m x 12 m for fruit production.

Care & Disease Control :

  • During February – March, prune the trees and thin the crowded branches to provide maximum fruit bearing area in the tree.
  • Watering and weeding are very essential during the first two years for proper establishment and growth.

Recommended Harvest :

  • Fruits can be harvested from 2nd year onwards

Yield :

  • The yield ranges about 70-80 Kg of fruits/tree/year

Agro Forestory :

Plants have an extensive root system and can be used to aid in the fixation of coastal dune sand The tree is useful as a living fence; its spiny stems and branches deter livestock

Major uses :

  • Fruits are eaten fresh or dried.
  • Root is used against diabetes and chronic fever.
  • Leaves are used to feed tussar silk worms.
  • Timber is used for house constructions, agricultural implements, oil crushers, golf clubs and toys.

Other uses :

Fodder: The leaves of Z. nummularia provide excellent fodder for livestock. In India, the average total yield of forage was about 1000 kg ha-1. The leaves are collected dried and stored. Fuel: It is a source of high calorific value (4400 kcal/kg) fuel and charcoal

Market details :

  • Fruits : Approximately Rs.100 to Rs120/kg
  • Wood : Approximately Rs.2600 to Rs.3000/ton