Belleric Myrobalan/Thandri kai

Terminalia bellerica



General Information :

  • Myrobalan is a large, fast-growing deciduous tree with a large.
  • Bark bluish grey in color.
  • Leaves are gdrake green globorous.
  • Flowers pale greenish yellow with strong offensive smell.
  • Fruits are dry fleshy drupe, grey, velvetry ,hard ,thick walled and woody.

Distribution :


  • Ballerica is common throughout India, except arid regions.

Habitat : Tropical and Deciduous Forest

Soil : Occurs in loam and alluvial soils.

Soil pH : 6.0-6.5

Altitude :500-1500 m (MSL)

Rainfall :900-3800 mm

Temperature : 17 - 47°c

Terrain : It prefers stream valleys and mountain slopes.

Tree Characteristics :  
  • It is light demander and sensitive to frost.

Habit : Deciduous Tree

Planting Guidelines

Natural Regeneration :

  • Regenerates naturally by seeds and coppice.

Artificial Regeneration :

  • Propagated by direct-sowing and Nursery raised seedlings.

Seed collection and Storage :

  • The fruits are collected during November- February.
  • Fruits are depulped and seed dried under sun before storage.
  • Viability of the seed is 12 months.
  • Depulped dry seeds 400 to 500/Kg
  • The germinative capacities of the seed varies from 55-70%
  •  Plant percent from 35-60%.

Seed Treatment :

  • Cold water soaking for 24 hours.

Nursery Technique :

  • Seeds are sown in mother bed during March – April.
  • Germination stats in a week and complete in a month.
  • Beds are regularly watered and weeded.
  • 3-4 months old nursery raised seedlings are fit for planting.
  • For road side and avenue planting 16 months old seedlings will do effectively.

Plantation technique :

  • 3-4 month old seedlings are planted out on the onset of monsoon.
  • Pit size 30 cm3 with spacing of 3 m x 3 m
  • For road side avenues – 15 to 16 month old plants are planted in pits of size 60 cm3, spaced 6-8 m apart.

Care & Disease Control :

  • Weeding and soil working is necessary for first 2-3 years in plantation.

Recommended Harvest :


  • 10 – 15 years

Yield :

  • Approximately 40–50 kg of dry fruits are obtained per tree per year after it attains six years of age.

Major uses :

  • The fruit is well known commercial Myrobalan called berrica myrobalan.
  • The fruits contain 21.4% tannin.
  • It is used for dyeing cloth and leather.
  • The timber is locally used for constructional work, planking, packing cases and side planks of boat.

Market details :

  • Approximately rs.3000 to Rs.3500 / ton.