Red Bead Tree/Red sandalwood.

Adenanthera pavonina



General Information :

  • A medium-sized to large deciduous tree, 6-15 m tall 
  • Bark dark brown to greyish; 
  • Leaves dull green on topside and blue-green underside
  • Flowers small, creamy yellow, fragrant; each flower star shaped with 5 petals.
  • Pods long and narrow, between seeds, dark brown in color

Distribution :

  • A. pavonina is endemic to southeast China and India, with 1st reports recorded in India. 
  • The tree has been introduced throughout the humid and tropical plains

Habitat : Deciduous forests at low elevations in both primary and secondary formations.

Soil : Found on a variety of soils from deep, well-drained to shallow and rocky, this tree prefers neutral to slightly acidic soils.

Altitude :Upto 400 metres

Rainfall :3,000 - 5,000mm

Temperature : 12 - 36°c

Terrain : It prefers dry, hot exposures of rocky hills.

Tree Characteristics :
  • Strong light demander and intolerant of suppression. 
  • Drought tolerant

Habit : Deciduous Tree

Planting Guidelines

Natural Regeneration :

Propagates naturally by seeds under favorable conditions.

Artificial Regeneration :

  • Propagated by direct sowing and Nursery raised seedlings.

Seed collection and Storage :

  • Seed collection in the month of December - February.
  • Germination percentage 75%. 
  • Number of seeds 3,750 /kg
  • Seed viability 24 months. 

Seed Treatment :

  • Hot water treatment for 24 hours. 

Nursery Technique :

  • Seeds are sown vertically at a depth of 1 to 1. 3 cm in polythene bags.
  • Polybags are kept under light shade and watering is done as and when required. 
  • The germination commences in 7 days and continues up to four weeks 
  • The seedlings become ready for plantation in 6 months.

Plantation technique :

  • The pit size of 30 cm3 is adopted.
  • Trees planted 1 x 2 meters apart for windbreaks and at 2 x 2 meters in plantations. 
  • For shade trees, spacing varies from 5 to 10 meters, depending on the companion crop and site. 

Care & Disease Control :

  • Plantation site should be free from weed and periodical pruning

Irrigation :

  • For proper growth and survival it is necessary to give one or two waterings after planting. This is specifically required in arid regions.
  • Irrigation after planting is not a prerequisite in areas having sufficient soil moisture and precipitation.
  • Higher survival rate and better rate of growth is reported when soil and water conservation measures are also adopted.

Recommended Harvest :

  • 10-15 years

Agro Forestory :

  • It is compatible with most tropical field and tree crops, making it suitable to use in integrated production systems.
  • It is interplanted among field and tree crops such as spices, coffee and coconuts.

Major uses :

Agroforestry Uses:

  • The tree is a natural pioneer. 
  • With its fast rate of growth and ability to fix atmospheric nitrogen, it can be used for land reclamation and to re-establish woodland.
  • The spreading crown of light, feathery foliage offers attractive shade and the tree is often planted for shade in coffee, clove and rubber plantations. 
  • It is also planted along field borders as part of a windbreak.
  • The small leaves break down easily, making the species a good green manure.
  • It is compatible with most tropical field and tree crops, making it suitable to use in integrated production systems.
  • It is inter-planted among field and tree crops such as spices, coffee and coconuts. 
  • It is often grown as a shade tree for coffee and nutmeg .

Market details :

  • Approximately Rs.1500 to 2000/ton*
*Subject to change according to market demands