General Information :
• It is a small tree, growing 4–6 m • The leaves aromatic dark green in color• Flowers small white in color which can self-pollinate to produce small shiny-black berries containing a single, large viable seed.
- Native to India and widely cultivated in all parts of India.
Habitat : Grown mainly in semiarid, tropical, and subtropical areas.
Soil : A adapted to a wide range of soil types but does well in well drained clay or clay loam without prolonged water logging
Soil pH : high as 8.5.
Altitude :500 m to 1600 m (MSL)
Rainfall :Up to 1000 mm
Temperature : 12 - 40°C
Terrain : Plains and gentle slopes
Tree Characteristics :
- Drought tolerant and sensitive to frost.
Habit : Evergreen tree
Natural Regeneration :
- Regenerate naturally by coppice.
Artificial Regeneration :
- Seedlings can be easily propagated cuttings and seed also.
Seed collection and Storage :
• Ripped fruits are collected during June-August. • Fruits are depulped and dried in sun.• Seed rate 1200-1800 / Kg.• Seeds lose viability on storage. • Germination capacity 35 – 90%• Plant percent varies from 56-96%.
Seed Treatment :
- No pretreatment is necessary.
Nursery Technique :
• The seed is directly sown in the polybags in April - May• Polythene bag with filled with sandy loam soil and FYM• Germination takes place within 10 - 15 days. • Regular watering and weeding should be ensured• Seedlings fit for planting out in 12 month.
Plantation technique :
• The field is ploughed 3-4 times to get a fine tilth. • Before last ploughing well decomposed FYM is applied @ 20 t/ha. • Pit size of 30 cm3 is dug one to two months before planting at a spacing of 1.2 to 1.5 m.
Care & Disease Control :
• Immediately after planting the pits are irrigated. • On the third day the second irrigation is given and then the irrigation is given once in a week.• Plantation should be weed free.
- Immediately after planting and then irrigation is given once in a week.
Recommended Harvest :
At the end of first year 250-400 kg of leaves/ha can be harvested.• In II year : Once in 4 months every time 1800 kg/ha which would work out to 5400 kg/ha/year• III year : Yield 5400 kg/ha• IV year : 2500 kg/ha once in 3 months which would work out to 10,000 kg/ha/year• V year onward : 5000 kg/ha once in 3 months which work out to 20,000 kg/ha/year
Agro Forestory :
First year intercrop like pulses
Major uses :
- Leaves are mainly used for human food.
Other uses :
Leaves are mainly used for human food and not to any great extent for livestock, but branches are occasionally lopped for feeding camels and cattle.
Its silviculture, involving regeneration by cuttings, coppicing and pollarding, keeps flowering on and off most parts of the year. This provides nectar to honey bees for a long period.
Market details :
• Approximately Rs.10000 to Rs.12000/ ton