Growth : Slow
Height : 15 m
Natural Regeneration :
- It is naturally propagated by seeds.
Artificial Regeneration :
- Propagated by direct sowing and entire seedlings.
Seed collection and Storage :
- Mature pods are collected during February-March.
- The pods dried in sun and the seeds are extracted
- The seed rate varies from 4400-6400 / kg.
- Germination Percentage is 50 – 100 %
- Plant percentage are 18-90%
Seed Treatment :
- Soaking in cold water for 6 hours.
Nursery Technique :
- The seed is directly sown in the polybags in April - May
- Polythene bag with filled with sandy loam soil but not heavy clay and FYM
- Germination takes place within 7-15 days.
- Watering should be on alternate day after germination.
- Seedlings grow very rapidly and fit for planting out in three month.
Plantation technique :
Nursery Raised Seedlings:
- Three month old nursery raised seedlings are selected for planting in pit size of 30 m3.
- Optimum Spacing adopted is 1.2 m x 1.2 m
- The seedlings should be planted out during the onset monsoon in well drained pits or contour trenches.
- The species is best raised by direct sowing in lines 30 cm wide and 1.8 cm apart.
- Seeds may be sown in the patches at an espacement of 1.8 x 1.8 x 1.8 m with about 3 seeds in each patch.
- Sowing done after the onset of monsoon.
Care & Disease Control :
Pest & Disease:
Damping off may affect the seedlings. If it is noticed, 3% solution of copper fungicide in water should be sprayed on the affectd plants. Seedlings may die-back for 2-3 years in stage of planting. So the period of the establishment in the field can be reduced by applying chemical fertilizers, 25 gm of a mixture of ammonium sulphate and super phosphate per plant applied in 2 dosages, the first 10 days of planting and the seond after one month of planting.
Recommended Harvest :
- Approximately 75 to 150 kg per annum.
Major uses :
- Regular weeding and soil working is essential.
- The most important product from the tree is Karaya Gum of commerce which is of great demand.
- It is used in Printing paper industries, textile cosmetics and Pharmaceutical industries.
- The timber is suitable for making poles, rafters and tool handles.
- Trees having girth 90 cm and above are suitable for tapping.
- Blazes should be made on the trees not lower than 90 cm from ground level with additional blaze for every 50 cm increase in girth.
- The size of the blaze should be limited to 15 cm (length) X 10 cm (breadth) X 2.5-3 cm (depth).
- The season of tapping will be from October to June
Other uses :
The gum is used as a bulk laxative. It is not absorbed by the body, but swells up inside the gut to provide a bulk of material that gently stimulates peristalsis. The gum is also used to treat throat infections.
A useful plant for reclaiming and reforesting bare, rocky land.
Market details :
- Wood: Approximately Rs.2000- Rs.2500 / ton.